How to grow organic fruit
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A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
Fruit/nut type, Plant type, Family, Botanical name Height, spread Recommended cultivars Propagation, Cultivation notes
Bilberry (Whortleberry), Hardy deciduous shrub, Ericaceae, Vaccinium myrtillis 6"-18"   Sow in October in 2:1 peat and sand mixture in frame. Prick out to 2"x2". Pot on into 3" pots of 1:1 peat and sand. Plant out October 12"x12". At 3 years, plant out at 18"x18" in permanent position between October and March. Harvest July to August.
Blueberry, Hardy deciduous shrub, Ericaceae, Vaccinium corymbosum 4'-6'   Sow in October in 2:1 peat and sand mixture in frame. Prick out to 2"x2". Lime hater. Pot on into 3" pots of 1:1 peat and sand. Plant out October 12"x12". At 3 years, plant out at 6'x6' in permanent position between October and March. Harvest August to September
Sweet Chestnut, Hardy deciduous tree, Fagaceae, Castanea sativa 25'-30'   Sow outdoors in nursery when ripe (October). Transplant the stronger ones the following autumn. Grow on for 3 more years. Plant out strongest in permanent position from November to January. Harvest October.
Citrus fruit (Grapefruit, Lemon, Sour orange, Sweet orange, Tangerine), Half hardy evergreen trees, Rutaceae, Citrus x paradisi, C. limon, C. auriantium, C. sinensis, C. nobilis   Meyer lemon, Otaheite orange (C. x limonia), myrtle-leaf orange (C. aurantiacum myrtifolia), Calamondin orange (Citrofortunella mitis), Tahiti lime, Bears lime, Nagami kumquat (Fortunella margarita) Best propagated by cuttings, but can be sown March at 60ª F in 3" pots ½ deep. Transplant to 4" pot after 2 years. Pot on every 2 years if necessary, but repot each spring. Feed weekly when fruits are swelling, spray leaves daily in hot weather, weekly in winter. Oranges require minimum winter temperatures of 45ª F, others 50ª F. Spring temperature should be 70ª F, Summer 80ª F. Water monthly with ½ tsp. of vinegar to 1 quart of water to maintain acidity. Hand pollination is necessary. Place pots outside in Summer. All fruit except lemons should be left on until ripe and harvested with secateurs.
Cranberry, Hardy evergreen shrub, Ericaceae, Vaccinium oxycoccus 2"   Sow in October in 2:1 peat and sand mixture in frame. Prick out to 2"x2". Pot on into 3" pots of 1:1 peat and sand. Plant out October 12"x12". At 3 years, plant out at 18"x18" in permanent position between October and March. Harvest August to September.
Currant, Hardy deciduous shrub, Saxifragaceae, Ribes,   Ben Sarak, Ben Nevis, Red Lake, White Dutch Plant out November to January 4-5' each way. Mulch in early spring with compost or manure after dressing with wood ash or rock potash. Water round the base if dry from May to late July. Harvest July to August.
Gooseberry, Hardy deciduous shrub, Saxifragaceae, Ribes ova-crispa 4'-5' Careless, Invicta, Whinham's Industry, Golden Drop, Whitesmith Plant out November-January 5' apart each way. Keep centre of bush clear and open. Keep well weeded. Protect from birds and frost. Mulch and feed in early Spring. Water when dry. Thin fruits and use thinnings. Harvest late May to August according to variety.
Cape gooseberry, Perennial, Solanaceae, Physalis edulis 5'-6'   Sow February to March at 65-70ª F ½" deep, 3'x3'. Prick out into individual 5" or 6" pots when large enough to handle. Support with a cane. Harvest when calyx turns golden brown.
Ground cherry, Tender vine, Solanaceae, Physalis pruinosa     Sow March at 60ªF, prick out into 3" peat pot. Transplant end May 36"x36" (RV 15"x4"). Make a mound for each plant with manure. Top dress with FBB when transplanting. Water well in dry weather and feed fortnightly when fruiting. Harvest when calyx turns golden brown.
Hazel (Cob, filbert), Hardy deciduous tree, Betulaceae, Corylus spp.     Sow October or November in frame singly in 4" pots of John Innes number 1. Transfer to a nursery bed the following autumn for 1 or 2 years. Cut back by half annually in March until bushy. From fifth year, cut back old growth to strong shoots in March. Keep well weeded. Harvest when husks begin to turn brown. Spread on trays to dry
Huckleberry, Hardy perennial, Gaylossacia spp.     Sow in October in 2:1 peat and sand mixture in frame. Prick out to 2"x2". Lime hater. Pot on into 3" pots of 1:1 peat and sand. Plant out October 12"x12". At 3 years, plant out at 6'x6' in permanent position between November and January. Harvest August to September.
Melon, Half hardy annual, Cucurbitaceae, Cucumis melo Vine Sweetheart, Amber Nectar Sow early May at 18ªC in peat pots or direct in South facing hills 4' apart. 6-8 seeds per 12" hill thinned to 3, or ½" deep in peat pots. Plant out late May under cloches 2'x2'. Take care, does not tolerate root disturbance. Dig in plenty of compost or manure. Mulch heavily. Hand pollinate, pinch out main shoot and each side shoot to 3 leaves to control growth. Water and liquid feed weekly. Pinch out to 2 leaves after fruit. Place tile under fruit. Supply trellis. Harvest August to September when a crack appears around the stem
Passion fruit (greenhouse only), Tender climbing perennial, Passifloraceae, P. edulis, mollisima, antioquiensis, incarnata Vine   Sow Spring indoors in peat pot seed 2" deep. Plant out at 6". Vines last 3-5 years, and fruit second year from seed. Spray flowers to encourage fruit set. Thin out thick laterals and shorten others to 8" after fruiting in Spring. Harvest Spring and late Summer from second year.
Peach [and Nectarine], Hardy deciduous tree, Rosaceae, Prunus persica 8'-16' Duke of York, Rochester, Peregrine [Sow September to October in 5" pot in frame. Pot on until 1 year old] Plant out in permanent position (best against a warm wall) between October and January. If growing against a wall leave 9" gap, supply wire framework 6-8' high. Bushes need windbreaks. Protect flowers from frost. Pollinate if no insects. Keep well watered and weed free. Thin fruits at marble size to 1 per cluster, 9" [6"] apart. Harvest July to September according to variety when flesh begins to soften around stalk
Pear, Hardy deciduous tree, Rosaceae, Pyrus communis 10'-35' Souvenir du Congrès
Dr Jules Guyot
Williams Bon Chrétien
Plant out November to January 10-35' apart each way. If growing against a wall leave 9" gap, supply wire framework 6-8' high. Bushes need windbreaks. Protect flowers from frost. Pollinate if no insects. Keep well watered and weed free. Thin fruits at marble size to 1 per cluster, 9" [6"] apart. Harvest July to September according to variety
Raspberry, Hardy biennial treated as annual, Rosaceae, Rubus idaeus   Malling varieties, Glen Clova, Zeva, Autumn Bliss Plant out November to January 18-24" apart, 5-6' between rows. Manure well before planting. Mulch in February. Water well June to August. Cut out old canes after fruiting and tie in up to 6 per plant. Allow birds access to soil in winter. Harvest July to September or September to October depending on variety
Rosella (greenhouse only), , Malvaceae,     Sow in heat in Spring ½" deep, 2'x3'
Strawberry, Hardy perennial, Rosaceae, Fragaria x ananassa and Fragaria vesca semperflorens   Plants: Pantagruella, Tenira, Tanella, Domanil, Cambridge Vigour. Seed: Temptation Surface sow February indoors. Plant out 24"x24" July to September. Take runners in August, up to 6 per plant. Burn off foliage on other plants. Plant in bed cultivated for at least 2 years, preferably with southerly slope, well manured. Protect from birds. Protect from frost in early May, keep cool in hot weather. Water early in the morning when dry once fruit has set. Mulch to avoid splashing. Harvest depends on variety, when red and firm.
Tomatillo,, Solanaceae, Physalis ixocarpa     Sow March in cold greenhouse. Transplant to 3"x3" in greenhouse, then 18"x12" in June. Do best in a light, rich soil. Hoe regularly. Harvest when calyx turns golden brown.
Walnut, Hardy deciduous tree, Juglandaceae, Juglans regia 100'   Plant out November to January. After 3 years. transplant strongest to permanent position in October to March. Mulch with well-rotted manure in spring. Do not prune. Remove dead branches in April or August. Gather nuts after they drop, wearing gloves, remove husk, clean and dry
Water chestnut (needs heat), water plant, , 3'   Plant in a large tub at 4" depth, then cover with 8" depth of water. Harvest after the plant dies down in Autumn, draining the tub first. Harvest Autumn
Watermelon (greenhouse), Half hardy annual, , Citrullus vulgaris Vine   Sow in April at 65ª F 1" deep, 18-24" apart each way. Keep potting on to avoid checking growth. Must be grown in greenhouse kept at 90° F by day, 60° at night. Transplant to border after 4 weeks. Hand pollinate. Stop after two fruits have developed. Fruit is ripe when end opposite stalk gives when pressed.

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